Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and is the most populous city in Tuscany. Florence was a centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of that era. It is considered by main academics the birthplace of the Renaissance, and has been called "the Athens of the Middle Ages". Its turbulent political history includes periods of rule by the powerful Medici family and numerous religious and republican revolutions. From 1865 to 1871 the city served as the capital of the Kingdom of Italy (established in 1861).
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